Bonaire, History, Pirates, Filibustiers and Buccaneers, Diego Lucifer, Antonio Vaz Henriques, Admiral Sir Henry Morgan, 1628-1667

Pg_014_-_Henry_Morgan_Recruiting_for_the_Attack_(bw)Diego Lucifer

Diego Lucifer, Diego de Los Reyes, Diego Martín, Diego el Mulatto, Diego le Mulâtre, Diego de la Cruz, Diego le Métis, Diego Grillo, Diaguillo & Diègue.

Martin (Diego), alias Diego de la Cruz, Diego de los Reyes, Dieguillo, Diego el Mulato, El Mulato, kapitein Lucifer of Cornieles, mulat, eerste stuurman der Hollanders. (Historisch Genootschap (Utrecht, Netherlands) – 1935 – Werken – Page 249)

En 1633 Diego “Mulato” y “Pie de Palo” habían atacado con éxito Campeche y en 1635, ya se había producido la ocupación de las islas San Cristóbal, Nieves, San Martín y Curacao. (Falia González Díaz, Pilar Lázaro de la Escosura, Archivo General de Indias – 2009 – Mare clausum mare liberum: la pirateria en la América española – Page 93)

el corsario holandés Pie de Palo, siendo Porter enviado como rehén a la Isla de Curacao, bajo el cuidado del corsario almirante Abrahán. Después de varios meses en la isla, Porter fue capturado por el corsario mulato Diego de los Reyes… (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas – 1974 – Estudios de historia novohispana – Volume 5 – Page 82)

…piloto mayor a un mulato llamado Diego de los Reyes natural de Sevilla casado en olanda. (Joaquín Marino Incháustegui Cabral, Spain, Spain. Sovereign – 1958 – Reales cédulas y correspondencia de gobernadores de Santo Domingo: … – Volume 4 – Page 1205)

Habana fue capturada por el pirata holandés Piet Hain, por lo que fue a parar a la isla de Curacao, donde estuvo a punto de ser ejecutado. Se libró gracias a que el mulato Diego de los Reyes, otro pirata, se lo llevó para seguir en su nave sus aventuras, hasta que decidió abandonarle cerca de Cartagena. (Demetrio Ramos Pérez, Guillermo Lohmann Villena – 1985 – América en el siglo XVII – Volume 2; Volume 9 – Page 113)

At that same period there also stayed on Curacao Captain Diego, perhaps the Diego el Mulato who had joined the Dutch before their capture of Curacao. He was making raids from Curacao with five vessels… (Johannes Hartog – 1968 – Curaçao, from colonial dependence to autonomy – Page 86History of the Netherlands Antilles – Volume 3 – Page 86)

Captain Diego Martín, alias Diego el Mulato, began life as a slave in Havana, but as a young man he took to piracy. (Christopher Leslie Brown, Philip D. Morgan – 2006 – Arming Slaves: From Classical Times to the Modern Age – Page 125)

“This mulatto, for some wrongs which had been ordered unto him from some commanding Spaniards in Havana, ventured himself desperatly in a boat out to sea, where were some Holland ships waiting for a prize. With God’s help getting unto them, he yeldied himself to their mercy, which he esteemed far better than that of his own countrymen, promising to serve them faithfull against his own nation, which had most injuriously and wrongly abused, yea, and whipped him in Havanna” (Jon Latimer – 2009 – Buccaneers of the Caribbean: How Piracy Forged an Empire – Page 330)

“Il fut tout à tour ou indifféremment appelé Diego le Mulâtre, Diego de la Cruz, Diego le Métis, Diego Grillo, Diaguillo, Diego Lucifer ou Diègue en français. Ce personnage hors du commun est né à La Havane d’une maman noire et peut être, comme pourrait le suggérer son nom Lucifer, du général hollandais Hendrick Jacobsz Lucifer qui croisa dans les Antilles entre les années 1610 et 1630…

…On signale ses premiers faits d’armes en 1633 quand il participa à la prise de Campeche au Mexique et l’année suivante quand, en compagnie du Hollandais Van Walbeeck et du flibustier français Pierre Le Grand il s’emparait de l’île de Curaçao qui servira dorénavant de base hollandaise dans les Antilles.

Diego était associé en 1636 avec un Anglais, le capitaine Thomas Newman avec une commission de la Compagnie de la Providence. Ils s’emparèrent d’un navire que Diego ramena en Hollande, oubliant au passage les droits dûs à la Compagnie, qui eut quelques difficultés à les récupérer…

…La signature du traité de Westphalie permettant à la Hollande d’acquérir des positions commerciales dans les Antilles espagnoles mit fin à la course hollandaise. Diego se retrouvait ainsi privé de commissions l’autorisant à faire des prises sur les Espagnols. Pourtant quelques années plus tard, il était de nouveau dans les Antilles mais cette fois-ci du côté français.

Ayant déjà travaillé avec des français comme le capitaine Jean Gabaret, il vint sans peine prendre des commissions auprès du gouverneur de la Tortue, pour la compte de la France.

En 1669 on signale sa présence dans la flotte de l’Olonnais sur la caye Cocinas. Il commande alors 2 frégates françaises. La plus grande de 6 canons et 70 hommes, l’autre de 2 canons et 50 hommes. Un autre témoignage français le localise l’année suivante continuant à prendre des commissions à la Tortue où il est appelé Diègue.

Puis l’année suivante il est aux côtés du grand Henry Morgan monté sur le Saint Jean pour la prise de Panama. La paix étant signée cette année-là entre l’Angleterre et l’Espagne les Espagnols déposèrent une plainte à Londres en raison du vol vers La Havane d’un aviso (navire rapide porteur de dépêches) envoyé depuis Carthagène.” (Un filibustier français dans la mer des Antilles, Jean-Pierre Moreau • 2002 • Éd. Payot • ISBN 978-2228895576 •)

Antonio Vaz Henriques, Moses Cohen Henriques Eanes

Henriques, Antonio Vaez, alias Moses Cohen Henriques. (Cecil Roth – 1975 – A history of the Marranos – Page 416)

Moses Cohen Henriques Eanes was a Sephardic pirate, operating in the Caribbean.

Henriques Eanes helped Dutch naval officer and folk hero Admiral Piet Pieterszoon Hein, of the Dutch West India Company, capture the Spanish treasure fleet in the battle of the Bay of Matanzas in Cuba, during the Eighty Years’ War, in 1628.

Part of the Spanish fleet in Venezuela had been warned because a Dutch cabin boy had lost his way on Blanquilla and was captured, betraying the plan, but the other half from Mexico continued its voyage, unaware of the threat. Sixteen Spanish ships were intercepted; one galleon was taken after a surprise encounter during the night, nine smaller merchants were talked into a surrender; two small ships were taken at sea fleeing, four fleeing galleons were trapped on the Cuban coast in the Bay of Matanzas. After some musket volleys from Dutch sloops their crews surrendered also and the Dutch captured 11,509,524 guilders of booty in gold, silver, and other expensive trade goods, as indigo and cochineal, without any bloodshed. The Dutch didn’t take prisoners: they gave the Spanish crews ample supplies for a march to Havana. The treasure was the company’s greatest victory in the Caribbean.

Henriques Eanes then went on to lead a Jewish contingent in Brazil during the Dutch rule, and established his own pirate island off the Brazilian coast. After the Portuguese recapture of Northern Brazil in 1654, Moses fled South America and ended up as an advisor to Henry Morgan, the leading pirate of the time. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_Cohen_Henriques)

1630. Recife, Antonio Vaz Henriques, alias Moses Cohen, helped to prepare the plan of the attack and took an active part in the fighting, while another Jew, Francisco de Campo, was responsible for the capture, in the same campaign of of the island of Fernao de Noronha. (Ben G. Frank – 2005 – A Travel Guide to the Jewish Caribbean and Latin America – Page 8)

Brothers Abraham & Moses Cohen Henriques

“He listened as Halliburton explained about Abraham Cohen and his brother, Moses Cohen Henriques. In May 1675 the two apparently sued each other. The document Felipe stole from the archives was a settlement of that suit in which Abraham agreed to give Moses forty farm animals in return of watching over his Jamaican property duringhis absence… Tre explained how the brothers helped settle Jamaica. Abraham Cohen was expelled from the island in 1640, yet he apparently returned in 1670, purchasing 420 acres that his brother cared for until 1675, when they disagreed over payment for that care…

…In the settlement, Moses offered to drop his lawsuit if Abraham would provide some information. The mine, Béne. That was what the two old men were really fighting about.” (Steve Berry – 2012 – The Columbus Affair)

Henriques helped Dutch naval officer and folk hero Admiral Piet Pieterszoon Hein, of the Dutch West India Company, capture the Spanish treasure fleet in the battle of the Bay of Matanzas in Cuba, during the Eighty Years’ War, in 1628. Moses Cohen Henriques, Dutch pirate of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin active in the Caribbean against Spain and Portugal. Moses Cohen (Antonio Vaez Henriques) operated from Brazil during Dutch and captured more than 500 Iberian ships. (http://www.jewishsphere.com/Directory/FamousJewishPirates.html)

Jacob Cohen Henriques

The next two years, 1655-1656, proved critical. Jews of considerably greater stature than the Recife emmigrants, who came to New Amsterdam after the twenty-three, led the mission. The most prominent were five Sephardic merchants, Abraham de Lucena, Salvador d’Andrada, Jacob Cohen Henriques, Joseph d’Acosta and David Ferera. Of these, the most important were the merchants d’Acosta and Cohen Henriques, both West India Company shareholders and past members of Recife’s mahamad. D’Acosta was a “principal shareholder”, while Cohen Henriques was the son of the principal investor Abraham Cohen. (Deborah Dash Moore, Howard B. Rock, Annie PollandCity of Promises – Page 20)

1660. Lawsuits entwined Jacob Cohen Henriques, a trader with Curacao, importing “Venetian pearls, Venetian pendants, thimbles, scissors, knives and bells”. Authorities charged him with smuggling tobacco, fined him for baking bread with the door open – perhaps an attempt to break the monopoly of the city’s bakers – and accused him of engaging in a fight in a canoe over the vessel’s ownership. He departed soon after this complaint. (Deborah Dash Moore, Howard B. Rock, Annie PollandCity of Promises – Page 20)

Captain-Morgan-ShipwreckHenry Morgan

Admiral Sir Henry Morgan (Harri Morgan in Welsh; ca. 1635 – 25 August 1688) was an Admiral of the English Royal Navy, a privateer, and a pirate who made a name for himself during activities in the Caribbean, primarily raiding Spanish settlements. He earned a reputation as one of the most notorious and successful privateers in history, and one of the most ruthless among those active along the Spanish Main.

When Morgan did return (circa 1665), Modyford (Governor of Jamaica) had already received letters from the King of England warning him to force all of the pirates to return to port. Modyford chose to neglect these warnings and continue to issue letters of marque under the guise that it was for the King’s best interest to protect Jamaica, and this was a necessary element in that goal. Because Modyford desired to get rid of the Dutch presence in the Caribbean he issued a letter of marque to Captain Edward Mansvelt to assemble a fleet of fifteen ships manned by roughly 500 to 600 men. Having just returned from a successful expedition off the Mexican Coast, where he captured several ships off the coast of Campeche, Morgan was appointed vice admiral of the fleet.

Mansvelt was given orders to attack the Dutch settlement of Curaçao, but once the crew was out at sea it was decided that Curaçao was not lucrative enough for the impending danger associated with attacking it. With this in mind, a vote was taken and the crew decided that attacking a different settlement would be a safer and more lucrative alternative. Unhappy with this decision, many of the buccaneers deserted the expedition and headed back to port while others continued on with Admiral Mansvelt and Vice-Admiral Morgan to attack the Spanish island of Providence. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Morgan)

Pieter Pieterszoon (Pietersen) Heyn

Pieter Pietersen Heyn (25 November 1577 – 18 June 1629) was a Dutch naval officer and folk hero during the Eighty Years’ War between the United Provinces and Spain. Hein was born in Delfshaven (now part of Rotterdam), the son of a sea captain, and he became a sailor while he was still a teenager. In his twenties, he was captured by the Spanish, and served as a galley slave for about four years, probably between 1598 and 1602, when he was traded for Spanish prisoners. Between 1603 and 1607 he was again held captive by the Spanish, when captured near Cuba.

In 1623, he became vice-admiral of the new Dutch West India Company (WIC) and sailed to the West Indies the following year. In Brazil, he briefly captured the Portuguese settlement of Salvador, personally leading the assault on the sea fortress of that town.

In 1628, Admiral Hein, with Witte de With as his flag captain, sailed out to capture a Spanish treasure fleet loaded with silver from their American colonies and the Philippines. With him was Admiral Hendrick Lonck and he was later joined by a squadron of Vice-Admiral Joost Banckert, as well as by the pirate Moses Cohen Henriques.

Part of the Spanish fleet in Venezuela had been warned because a Dutch cabin boy had lost his way on Blanquilla and was captured, betraying the plan, but the other half from Mexico continued its voyage, unaware of the threat. Sixteen Spanish ships were intercepted; one galleon was taken after a surprise encounter during the night, nine smaller merchants were talked into a surrender; two small ships were taken at sea fleeing, four fleeing galleons were trapped on the Cuban coast in the Bay of Matanzas. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piet_Pieterszoon_Hein)

©2013 Olivier Douvry/GlobeDivers

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Categorised in: 2013, Artifacts, Bonaire, Library, Maps and Charts, News, People, Pirates and battles, Shipwrecks of Bonaire

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